University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh. The Woodland period, lasting from about 3,000 BC to 1000 AD, is an archaeological classification of Native American cultures of North America prior to European contact. The bow and arrow made hunting less of a communal activity than it had been in the past, and individual families became more self-sufficient. Required fields are marked *. Period of North American pre-Columbian cultures, Middle Woodland period (200 BCE – 500 CE). Woodland Period by Dean Quigley, National Park Service. These have come to be known as the Hopewell tradition. Examples include the Armstrong culture, Copena culture, Crab Orchard culture, Fourche Maline culture, the Goodall Focus, the Havana Hopewell culture, the Kansas City Hopewell, the Marksville culture, and the Swift Creek culture. These were quite large and corner-notched. in … Middle Woodland Period - The Hopewell Culture The Middle Woodland period, which lasted from roughly 100 B.C. Most of these are evident in the Southeastern Woodlands by 1000 BCE. Woodland period. The term “Woodland Period” was introduced in the 1930s as a generic term for prehistoric sites falling between the Archaic hunter-gatherers and the agriculturalist Mississippian cultures. During this time, populations increased and settlements filled up the landscape, spreading northward up small streams. Mounds of North America Mound Builder is a general term referring to the Native North American peoples who constructed various styles of earthen mounds for burial, residential, and ceremonial purposes. This culture is believed to have been core to the Meadowood Interaction Sphere, in which cultures in the Great Lakes region, the St. Lawrence region, the Far Northeast, and the Atlantic region interacted. American Anthropologist 72(4):802–15. Pottery was most often decorated with a variety of linear or paddle stamps that created "dentate" (tooth-like) impressions, wavy line impressions, checked surfaces, or fabric-impressed surfaces, but some pots were incised with herringbone and other geometric patterns or, more rarely, with pictorial imagery such as faces. The Middle Woodland period, lasting from about 200 BC to 600 AD, is marked by changes in settlement and subsistence patterns as populations increased and people began to spread into other areas to take advantage of diverse food resources. By the beginning of the Woodland period, climatic conditions had reached an approximation of the modern-day climate. The vast m… Intensive cultivation of native food crops such as chenopodium, sunflowers, and gourds was widespread by 1000 BC. Archaic Period – 8000 BC to 3000 BC. The Woodland period, lasting from about 3,000 BC to 1000 AD, is an archaeological classification of Native American cultures of North America prior to European contact. In most areas construction of burial mounds decreased drastically, as well as long-distance trade in exotic materials. Woodland trade networks distributed exotic raw materials and finished ceremonial artifacts all across eastern North America. The Early Woodland period continued many trends that began during the Late Archaic period, including extensive mound-building, regional distinctive burial complexes, the trade of exotic goods across a large area of North America, the reliance on both wild and domesticated plant foods, and a mobile subsistence strategy in which small groups took advantage of seasonally available resources such as nuts, fish, shellfish, and wild plants. The Woodland period is marked by the manufacture of ceramic vessels, construction of mounds, the rise and fall of a vast exchange network, unequal distribution of exotic raw materials and finished goods, and horticultural activity. During the Altithermal, Archaic peoples dug wells to stay alive in the … The use of these divisions has diminished in most of North America … Some were slipped or brushed with red ochre.[6]. Pottery, agriculture, and permanent settlements have often been thought of the three defining characteristics of the Woodland period. In the classification of archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spanned a period from roughly 1000 BC to European contact in the eastern part of North America, with some archaeologists distinguishing the Mississippian period, from 1000 AD to European contact as a separate period. The University of the State of New York, Albany. And, in some regions, pottery predates the onset of Woodland cultures by over 1000 years. The Far Northeast, the Sub-Arctic, and the Northwest/Plains regions widely adopted pottery somewhat later, about 200 BCE. Mason, Ronald J. Mound construction dates back to at least 3000 BC. [9] Nevertheless, these early sites were typical Archaic settlements, differing only in the use of basic ceramic technology. However, an increase of exotic artifacts at Middle Woodland sites indicates that there was more interaction between different regions than there had been during the Early Woodland. Some groups in the north and northeast of the current United States, such as the Iroquois, retained a way of life that was technologically identical to the Late Woodland until the arrival of Europeans. This is especially true for the middle woodland period and perhaps beyond. This period was also characterized by a lack of the non-local artifacts and materials that had been seen in the previous 500 years. Ceramics during this time were thinner and better quality than earlier times. In the classification of archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spanned a period from roughly 1000 BCE to European contact in the eastern part of North America, with some archaeologists distinguishing the Mississippian period, from 1000 CE to European contact as a separate period. [10] Nuts were processed in large amounts, including hickory and acorns, and many wild berries, including palm berries, blueberries, raspberries, and strawberries, were eaten, as well as wild grapes and persimmon. Many were decorated with stamped, punctuated, pinched, or brushed designs, and some were painted. Recently evidence has accumulated a greater reliance on woodland peoples on cultivation in this period, at least in some localities, than has historically been recognized. During Hernando de Soto's travels through the Southeastern Woodlands around 1543, the groups at the mouth of the Mississippi river still preferentially used the spear. Cambridge University Press. Throughout the Southeast and north of the Ohio River, burial mounds of important people were very elaborate and contained a variety of mortuary gifts, many of which were not local. Our cookies are delicious. Woodland cultures, prehistoric cultures of eastern North America dating from the 1st millennium bc. Hopewell Culture – 100 BC – 500 AD. Middle Woodland people still hunted, fished, and gathered wild foods, but they also spent increasing amounts of time tending their plots of maize, squash, and other plants. (1992). Additionally, the mound centers expanded their functions from places of burial to places where civic and ceremonial functions occurred. The Archaic and Woodland periods, the archaeological periods following the Paleo-Indian, are characterized by the development of plant domestication and the beginnings of organized agricultural activities. This archaeological designation is often mistakenly conflated with the eco-cultural delineation of the continent’s eastern culture areas: the term Eastern Woodland cultures refers to the early … During the Middle Woodland period, these networks were part of an interregional "ceremonial cult" represented by the Hopewell culture, which originated in the Ohio River valley around 200 B.C. in parts of the region.[12]. The Havana style found in Illinois had a decorated neck. Within this era, the classification is further divided into three more periods based on changes in the way people lived, including their settlement patterns, trading activities, subsistence, the tools they used, and mortuary practices. Woodland period. The decline in ceremonialism may indicate the development of a new form of religion that focused on a reverence for the ancestors of certain lineages. Clay for pottery was typically tempered (mixed with non-clay additives) with grit (crushed rock) or limestone. As the Hopewell culture declined, mortuary practices became more variable and simplified. As a result, the long-distance exchange networks that developed during the Late Archaic broke down. However, it is now clear, that the beginnings of these developments lie deeper in the past by a thousand years or more. Seasonal foraging also characterized the strategies of many interior populations, with groups moving strategically among dense resource areas. Like the Archaic Period, each Woodland sub-period represents a slightly different way of life. The increasing use of horticulture and the development of the Eastern Agricultural Complex, consisting of weedy seed plants as well as gourd cultivation, also meant that groups became less mobile over time and, in some times and places, people lived in permanently occupied villages and cities. Various types of pottery were made including bowls, jars, and serving, storage. The Center for American Archeology specializes in Middle Woodland culture. Early Woodland Period – 1000 BC to 200 BC. Although pottery, horticulture, and earthen mounds were familiar to some people who lived during the Archaic period, after about 1000 BC such innovations became widespread across Eastern North America. In north-central Iowa, settlements were placed near the shores of natural lakes, where native … People like the Pueblo people settled down more in permanent villages and towns. Archaeologists have defined several cultures within the Woodland Period. to 400 A.D., is perhaps best known in the Ohio River Valley as the era during which the Hopewell culture flourished. The most remarkable aspect of Middle Woodland culture is the development of the Hopewell Culture.which was characterized by large, geometric earthworks and conical mounds that contained elaborate tombs with many exotic grave offerings including jewelry and art pieces made of copper, mica, obsidian, and ocean shells, as well as long, stemless, stone projectile points. Early Woodland Period – 3000 BC to 200 BC. The term “Woodland Period” was introduced in the 1930s as a generic term for prehistoric sites falling between the Archaic hunter-gatherers and the agriculturalist Mississippian cultures. As populations grew, people began to settle into larger villages and roup territories became more defined. Mississippian. By this point, the people were tending gardens and gathering shellfish from the local rivers, which enabled them to live in one place for long periods of time without having to hunt for food as often. Among the traded materials were copper from the Lake Superior deposits; silver from Lake Superior and especially Ontario; galena from Missouri and Illinois; mica from the southern Appalachians; chert from various places including Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois; pipestone from Ohio and Illinois; alligator teeth from the lower Mississippi Valley eastward to Florida; marine shells, especially whelks, from the south Atlantic and Gulf coasts; Knife River chalcedony from North Dakota; and obsidian from Yellowstone in Wyoming. Pots were usually made in a conoidal or conical jar with rounded shoulders, slightly constricted necks, and flaring rims. Many of the graves included rich goods such as copper bracelets, beads, art objects made from mica, hematite, banded slate, and other kinds of stone. National Park Service And these changes set the stage for the developments that would take place in the Mississippian period. Under this scenario, permanent settlements would be likely to develop, leading to increased agricultural production and a population increase. 549 Words2 Pages. [3] It can be characterized as a chronological and cultural manifestation without any massive changes in a short time but instead having a continuous development in stone and bone tools, leather crafting, textile manufacture, cultivation, and shelter construction. In some areas, like South Carolina and coastal Georgia, Deptford culture pottery manufacture ceased after c. 700 CE. "Initial formation of an indigenous crop complex in eastern North America at 3800 B.P. (Last Privacy Policy Update July 2020), Byways & Historic Trails – Great Drives in America, Soldiers and Officers in American History, Alva Gould – Discoverer of the Famous Gould and Curry Mine, Honest Miner To a Poker-Playing Politician, Old Tom – A Typical Mining Camp Character, Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, Colorado. Pottery first appears in Illinois during the Early Woodland. The beginning of the Middle Woodland saw a shift of settlement to the Interior. Many Woodland peoples used spears and atlatls until the end of the period, when they were replaced by bows and arrows; however, Southeastern Woodland peoples also used blowguns. A remarkable development of the Early Woodland was the widespread construction of earthen mounds. The Woodland Period began about 3,000 years ago. Woodland Periods in North America. As such, researchers are now redefining the period to begin with not only pottery, but the appearance of permanent settlements, elaborate burial practices, intensive collection and/or horticulture of starchy seed plants (see Eastern Agricultural Complex), differentiation in social organization, and specialized activities, among other factors. The term "Woodland Period" was introduced in the 1930s as a generic term for prehistoric sites falling between the Archaic hunter-g… The pottery was sometimes traded with other groups. The Far Northeast, the Sub-Arctic, and the Northwest/Plains regions widely adopted pottery somewhat later, about 200 BCE. Such similarities could also be the result of reciprocal trade, obligations, or both between local clans that controlled specific territories. Woodland collection in the Robbins Museum‎ (3 C) Media in category "Woodland period in North America" The following 4 files are in this category, out of 4 total. [7] However, it has become evident that, in some areas of North America, prehistoric cultural groups with a clearly Archaic cultural assemblage were making pottery without any evidence of the cultivation of domesticated crops. [13] The most archaeologically certifiable sites of burial during this time were in Illinois and Ohio. The Hopewell culture flourished in Ohio and other parts of eastern North America during the Middle Woodland Period, possibly as early as 100 B.C. As communities became more isolated, they began to develop in their own unique ways, giving rise to small-scale cultures that were distinctive to their regional areas. (1955). In the classification of archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spanned a period from roughly 1000 BCE to European contact in the eastern part of North America, with some archaeologists distinguishing the Mississippian period, from 1000 CE to European contact as a separate period. The Woodland Period -- an archaeologically-designated period -- generally marks the appearance of pottery, cultivated plants, settled village life and mound building on the North American Continent. Alternatively, the efficiency of bows and arrows in hunting may have decimated the large game animals, forcing the tribes to break apart into smaller clans to better use local resources, thus limiting the trade potential of each group. Stone was used from nearby sources for making tools and tubular stone pipes first appeared during his period that were likely used for ritual and ceremonial smoking. We do not know what these people might have called themselves. However, this pottery was not widespread, and most pottery was made with clay, tempered with crushed rock or limestone. The most conclusive evidence suggests that native copper was utilized to produce a wide variety of tools beginning in the Middle Archaic period circa 4,000 BC. Ritchie, W. A. Middle Woodland Period – 200 BC to 500 AD. This period is variously considered a developmental stage, a time period, a suite of technological adaptations or "traits", and a "family tree" of cultures related to earlier Archaic cultures. Lastly, it may be that agricultural technology became sophisticated enough that crop variation between clans lessened, thereby decreasing the need for trade. In this unique volume, archaeologists examine the changing economic structure of trade in North America over a period of 6,000 years. Unlike the people of the Late Archaic people, Early Woodland peoples generally did not travel long distances from their base camps. "Seeking Our Past: An Introduction to North American Archaeology". But there were changes which definitely distinguish the Woodland era from the earlier period. ", PNAS, vol. United States Department of Agriculture They were made by soft-hammering percussion, and finished by pressure flaking.[14]. We use cookies. Early Woodland Period (1000–1 BCE) The archaeological record suggests that humans in the Eastern Woodlands of North America were collecting plants from the wild by 6,000 BCE and gradually modifying them by selective collection and cultivation. 16, 6561–6566, Behm, Jeffrey (2007 March) Middle Woodland. Coastal peoples practiced seasonal mobility, moving to the coast during the summer to take advantage of numerous marine resources such as sea mammals and shellfish, then moved to interior locations during the winter where access to deer, bear, and anadromous fish such as salmon could see them through the winter. The reasons for this are unknown, but it has been theorized that populations increased so much that trade alone could no longer support the communities and some clans resorted to raiding others for resources. Late Woodland Period – 500 to 1000 AD. Likely as a result of these regional gatherings, pottery from different places developed widespread similarities in form and decoration. The Middle Woodland period in eastern North America witnessed a florescence of monumental architecture and material exchange linked to widespread networks … However, they would leave as needed to hunt or fish in the surrounding areas. The name we use comes from Mordecai Hopewell, a Chillicothe landowner on whose property mounds were excavated in the 1800s. 2000 B.C. "Prehistory of the Americas, 2nd Edition." Pottery, which had been manufactured during the Archaic period in limited amounts, became widespread across the Eastern Interior, the Southeast, and the Northeast. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. and cooking containers. Until quite recently, the onset of the Woodland period was assumed to have been the time of the initial appearance of pottery vessels, the beginnings of mound ceremonialism, the emergence of sedentary village life with well-defined structures and settlements, and intensive cultivation of crops. They divided the archaeological record in the Americas into 5 phases, only three of which applied to North America. – A.D. 1000)", List of archaeological periods (North America), Hopewell Culture National Historical Park, Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, Sac and Fox Nation of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska, Dr. Susan LaFlesche Picotte Memorial Hospital, Pawnee Mission and Burnt Village Archeological Site, Little Maquoketa River Mounds State Preserve, University of Tennessee Agriculture Farm Mound, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Woodland_period&oldid=998230384, 10th-century disestablishments in North America, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 11:49. These included Archaic, and Woodland period, and Mississippian period … People began making stone projectile points that were shorter, thinner, and more triangular so they could be attached to arrows. [1] The term "Woodland Period" was introduced in the 1930s as a generic term for prehistoric sites falling between the Archaic hunter-gatherers and the agriculturalist Mississippian cultures. In Paul E. Minnis, People and Plants in Ancient Eastern North America, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, Bruce D. Smith and Richard A. Yarnell (2009). This was the last major prehistoric culture in North America prior to … Shellfish formed an important part of the diet, attested to by numerous shell middens along the coast and interior rivers. People tended to settle along rivers and lakes in both coastal and interior regions for maximum access to food resources. Neusius, Sarah W. and G. Timothy Gross (2014). The transition from the Late Archaic to the Early Woodland is marked by an increase in cultural developments that can be traced to the Middle and Late Archaic. "Patterns of Wild Plant Utilization in the Prehistoric Eastern Woodlands". Many aspects of daily life during this time were not much different from those of the preceding Archaic Period. Woodland Period – 3,000 BC to 1000 AD. Despite the apparent reduction of inter-regional exchange, the Late Woodland period was a time of important cultural changes, including the appearance of the bow and arrow in about around AD 700. Pottery, which had been manufactured during the Archaic period in limited amounts, was now widespread across the Eastern Interior, the Southeast, and the Northeast. They did so, however, by cultivating starchy seeds rather than by gathering more acorns." "Recent Discoveries Suggesting an Early Woodland Burial Cult in the Northeast". The most cited technological distinction of this period was the widespread use of pottery (although pottery manufacture had arisen during the Archaic period in some places), and the diversification of pottery forms, decorations, and manufacturing practices. Each contribution explores neighboring areas to llustrate the complexity of North … Over most of this area these cultures were replaced by the Mississippian culture (q.v.) Early Woodland Period 1,000 BCE to 1 CE This period was marked by the creation of extensive mound-building, burial complexes, the trade goods across a large area of North America. Adena Culture – 1000 BC to 1 AD. 2012 excavations and dating by Thompson and Pluckhahn show that work began around 2600 BCE, seven centuries before the mound-builders in Ohio. Your email address will not be published. The Late Woodland period began about AD 500 and lasted about 500 years, until AD 1000. Compiled by Kathy Weiser-Alexander, March 2020. Organined by geographical and chronological divisions, each chapter focuses on trade in one of nine regions from the Arachiac through the late prehistoric period. At the same time, bow and arrow technology gradually overtook the use of the spear and atlatl, and agricultural production of the "Three Sisters" (maize, beans, and squash) was introduced. The late Woodland period was a time of apparent population dispersal, although populations do not appear to have decreased. Late Woodland settlements became more numerous, but the size of each one (with exceptions) was smaller than their middle Woodland counterparts. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. These mounds, varying in size and shape, were generally were built on top of burial pits or tombs of important individuals. The Early Woodland period began in the southern and midwestern part of North America about 1200 BC. Considered a developmental period, it involved tools made of bones and stone, making of textiles, shelter such as tents, and leather. Oshkosh, WI, List of archaeological periods (Mesoamerica), "The Woodland Period (ca. EVIDENCE FOR STEPPED PYRAMIDS OF SHELL IN THE WOODLAND PERIOD OF EASTERN NORTH AMERICA Thomas J. Pluckhahn, Victor D. Thompson, and W. Jack Rink Antiquarians of the nineteenth century referred to the largest monumental constructions in eastern North America as pyramids, but this usage faded among archaeologists by the mid-twentieth century. Although the 1000 CE ending of the Late Woodland period is traditional, in practice many regions of the Eastern Woodlands adopted the full Mississippian culture much later than that. In coastal regions, many settlements were near the coast, often near salt marshes, which were habitats rich in food resources. Small amounts of exotic items still occurred in Late Woodland graves, but they seemed not to have been part of an elaborate mortuary complex. The Early Woodland lasted from about 3000 BC to 200 BC. In the classification of archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spanned a period from roughly 1000 BCE to European contact in the eastern part of North America, with some archaeologists distinguishing the Mississippian period, from 1000 CE to European contact as a separate period. Houses, tools, clothing, and foods were similar. [11] Smith and Yarnell refer to an "indigenous crop complex" as early as 3800 B.P. People continued to live in base camps, but their increased numbers led to competition for resources and an increase in warfare. The large area of interaction is indicated by the presence of Adena-style mounds, the presence of exotic goods from other parts of the interaction spheres, and the participation in the "Early Woodland Burial Complex" defined by William Ritchie [5], Pottery was widely manufactured and sometimes traded, particularly in the Eastern Interior region. Other items included projectile points, natural pigments like ocher, or a few special trade items. The term "Woodland Period" was … People continued to make stemmed points with broad blades, but they were slightly smaller. Although many of the Middle Woodland cultures are called "Hopewellian", and groups shared ceremonial practices, archeologists have identified the development of distinctly separate cultures during the Middle Woodland period. The Old Copper Complex, also known as the Old Copper Culture, refers to the items made by early inhabitants of the Great Lakes region during a period that spans several thousand years and covers several thousand square miles. One style was the Trempealeau phase which could have been seen by the Hopewell in Indiana. Oxford University Press. Some of these artifacts and materials were not local to the people such as copper from the Great Lakes area, mica from the southern Appalachians, and shells from the Gulf coast. C. Margaret Scarry states "in the Woodland periods, people diversified their use of plant foods ... [they] increased their consumption of starchy foods. C. Margaret Scarry (2003). Another result of people not moving around as much was that the various bands did not see each other and share ideas as often, so styles of making pottery and tools became very distinct from region to region. There is evidence that many small groups occasionally gathered together to build mounds and maintain long-range ties. A third possibility is a colder climate may have affected food yields, possibly affected by Northern Hemisphere extreme weather events of 535–536, also limiting trade possibilities. In fact, it appears that hunting and gathering continued as the basic subsistence economy and that subsistence horticulture/agriculture did not occur in much of the Southeast for a couple of thousand years after the introduction of pottery, and in parts of the Northeast, horticulture was never practiced. One of the early periods was the Eastern Woodland period (800-200 BCE) which led to the mound emergence and when the Middle Woodland period (c. 200 BCE- AD 400) started, the mounds became more significant for ritual and spiritual meaning … "Hopewell, Middle Woodland, and the Laurel Culture: A Problem in Archaeological Classification". Fiedel, Stuart J. Furthermore, despite the widespread adoption of the bow and arrow during this time, the peoples of a few areas appear never to have made the change. Populations increased and settlements filled up the landscape, spreading northward up small streams. Access to food or resources outside a clan's territory would be made possible through formal agreements with neighbors. The Woodland period is a label used by archaeologists to designate pre-Columbian Native American occupations dating between roughly 500 BC and AD 1100 … [1] The term "Woodland Period… One of the most enduring classifications of archaeological periods and cultures was established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips' 1958 book Method and Theory in American Archaeology. Clan heads would then be buried along with goods received from their trading partners to symbolize the relationships they had established. New York State Museum and Science Service Circular 40. Trading partners to symbolize the relationships they had established to quicken, to... Like ocher, or brushed designs, and website in this unique volume, archaeologists examine the economic! Long-Distance trade in exotic materials email, and permanent settlements would be to! To develop, leading to increased agricultural production and a population increase era was points... 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Settled down more in permanent villages and towns lack of the ecological benefits of prescribed burning was slow coming! 100 B.C and materials that had been seen by the beginning of the preceding Archaic.! Culture first developed in what is now clear, that the beginnings of these are evident the..., prehistoric cultures of eastern North America was a time of apparent population dispersal, although populations do not to... In this browser for the next time I comment Woodland settlements became more defined stamped, punctuated, pinched or. What is now clear, that the person buried there had a higher and/or special status Suggesting an Woodland! Widespread by 1000 BC, people developed large, rounded jars used for storage central and western Iowa retained pattern... Was made with clay, tempered with crushed rock ) or limestone, thinner, and,! In what is now the Ohio River Valley as the Hopewell tradition or conical jar with shoulders! And finished by pressure flaking. [ 6 ] 6 ] coming and varied geographically related families who... Obligations, or a few special trade items and the Northwest/Plains regions widely adopted horticulture pottery-making! Cultural change began to settle into larger villages and roup territories became defined. New York, Albany Valley as the Hopewell culture the Middle Woodland period - the Hopewell in Indiana – BC!, climatic conditions had reached an approximation of the Americas into 5 phases, only three of applied. Pottery from different places developed widespread similarities in form and decoration on whose mounds! The pace of cultural change began to settle along rivers and lakes in both coastal interior. Early Woodland peoples generally did not travel long distances from their base,... Over 1000 years Northwest/Plains regions widely adopted horticulture, pottery-making, the mound centers expanded their functions places! 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To baskets Timothy Gross ( 2014 ) be likely to develop, leading to increased agricultural production and population. The era during which the Hopewell culture flourished diet, attested to by numerous shell middens along the and... Will assume that you are happy with it the non-local artifacts and materials that had developed during the period! Grit ( crushed rock or limestone and most pottery was made with clay, with! The Northwest/Plains regions widely adopted horticulture, pottery-making, the mound centers expanded their functions from places burial! This time were in Illinois had a higher and/or special status new,! More triangular so they could be stored, people widely adopted horticulture, pottery-making, the Sub-Arctic, foods. Bc to 500 AD stamped, punctuated, pinched, or a few special trade items the economic! The Laurel culture: a Problem in archaeological Classification '', or a few special trade items down in... 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A remarkable development of the Late Woodland settlements became more numerous, but the size each! Sub-Period represents a slightly different way of life with it important individuals thought of the.. But there were changes which definitely distinguish the Woodland tradition was found on the Great Plains woodland period north america divided the record! The mound centers expanded their functions from places of burial pits or of. Woodland peoples generally did not travel long distances from their base camps, but their numbers. And pottery-making became much more common and widely distributed relationships they had established and these changes set the stage the! Of settlement to the interior small streams deeper in woodland period north america Ohio River as. The Mississippian culture ( q.v. are especially important because they indicate that the buried... Pottery included some that were shorter, thinner, and serving, storage were more of... Of corn, beans, and more woodland period north america so they could be to! Show pottery also was more decorated than Early Woodland lasted from about 3000 to. Excavated in the Past by a lack of the Midwest and gradually spread southward – 200 BC crushed or. Were thinner and better quality than earlier times by over 1000 years complexity and population growth 's would... Pottery also was more decorated than Early Woodland lasted from about 3000 BC 500! Decreased drastically, as well as long-distance trade in North America became,!

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